Before the start of cold weather and blizzard:
- Remain at home and preserve stocks of food, water and fuel. It is recommended to leave the house or to get out only in emergency, because during a blizzard visibility decreases and the movement of both city and long-distance transport is disrupted. Road workers are not always able to clear the roads in time. Snow-covered roads and bad visibility make it difficult to move around and such situations can be very dangerous;
- When farmers hear about a possible blizzard, they need to prepare forage and water-supply for cattle;
- Do not forget about your neighbours, particularly – the elderly who may need your help during cold weather.
In case of heavy cold or blizzard:
- If, during a blizzard, you get stuck in the car, it is recommended not to switch off the engine or periodically warm it up. It is vital not to fill the interior with exhaust gases. Therefore, do not forget to check that the exhaust pipe is not blocked by snow;
- Do not use self-made electric heaters, do not plug several appliances into the same supply line and do not leave them switched on without supervision;
- There is a danger of frostbite on exposed parts of the body: ears, nose, and cheeks. Toes, fingers and feet often suffer from frostbite too. Therefore, wear proper warm clothes and footwear.
In case of frostbite:
- If frostbite is mild, first of all warm the person (the temperature of the environment should be not lower than 26-27 degrees Celsius), cover him with blankets or warm clothes. If the person did not lose consciousness, give him warm (but not hot) drinks. Remove clothes from the affected areas, and dress the frost-bitten areas with sterile gauze, cotton wool or a cotton fabric;
- It is also recommended not to warm the frost-bitten areas with hot-water bottles or to hold them near fires, to rub with snow or rough fabric;
- If frostbite is severe, the person should be moved to a warm room. If the person has lost consciousness, and is breathing, put him on his side, if breathing has stopped – do artificial respiration immediately. It is necessary to wrap a heavily frost-bitten person in a thick, warm fabric and take him to the doctor as soon as possible.
It is important to note that cold weather and wind may cause more harm than very cold weather without wind. In case of a strong wind, cold weather becomes more severe which results in lower Real Feel Temperature (Feels Like Temperature). Therefore, before going outside, a person should evaluate and consider these factors.